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Additional resources for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change
Three Equilibrium Vapor strain over a Curved floor: The Kelvin influence 461 10. four Thermodynamics of Atmospheric Aerosol platforms 464 10. four. 1 The H 2 SO four -H 2 O process 464 10. four. 2 The Sulfuric Acid-Ammonia-Water procedure 470 10. four. three The Ammonia-Nitric Acid-Water approach 472 10. four. four The Ammonia-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid-Water method 478 CONTENTS 10. four. five different Inorganic Aerosol Species 483 10. four. 6 Inorganic Aerosol Thermodynamic versions difficulties 485 References 486 eleven xix 484 Nucleation 489 eleven. 1 Classical idea of Homogeneous Nucleation: Kinetic method 491 eleven. 1. 1 The ahead cost consistent βi 494 eleven. 1. 2 The opposite cost consistent Γi 495 eleven. 1. three Derivation of the Nucleation cost 496 eleven. 2 Classical Homogeneous Nucleation concept: restricted Equilibrium process 500 eleven. 2. 1 unfastened power of i-mer Formation 500 eleven. 2. 2 limited Equilibrium Cluster Distribution 502 eleven. 2. three The Evaporation Coefficient Γi, 504 eleven. 2. four Nucleation cost 505 eleven. three Recapitulation of Classical idea 508 eleven. four Experimental size of Nucleation charges 509 eleven. four. 1 Upward Thermal Diffusion Cloud Chamber 510 eleven. four. 2 quick growth Chamber 510 eleven. four. three Turbulent blending Chambers 512 eleven. four. four Experimental assessment of Classical Homogeneous Nucleation conception 512 eleven. five transformations of the Classical concept and extra Rigorous techniques 513 eleven. 6 Binary Homogeneous Nucleation 514 eleven. 7 Binary Nucleation within the H 2 SO four -H 2 O method 520 eleven. eight Heterogeneous Nucleation 524 eleven. eight. 1 Nucleation on an Insoluble international floor 524 eleven. eight. 2 Ion-Induced Nucleation 526 eleven. nine Nucleation within the surroundings 529 Appendix eleven The legislation of Mass motion 531 difficulties 532 References 533 12 Mass move elements of Atmospheric Chemistry 12. 1 Mass and warmth move to Atmospheric debris 537 12. 1. 1 The Continuum Regime 537 12. 1. 2 The Kinetic Regime 541 12. 1. three The Transition Regime 542 12. 1. four The lodging Coefficient 546 12. 2 Mass shipping obstacles in Aqueous-Phase Chemistry 12. 2. 1 attribute Time for Gas-Phase Diffusion to a Particle 549 537 547 xx CONTENTS 12. 2. 2 attribute Time to accomplish Equilibrium within the Gas-Particle Interface 551 12. 2. three attribute Time of Aqueous Dissociation Reactions 554 12. 2. four attribute Time of Aqueous-Phase Diffusion in a Droplet 556 12. 2. five attribute Time for Aqueous-Phase Chemical Reactions 557 12. three Mass delivery and Aqueous-Phase Chemistry 557 12. three. 1 Gas-Phase Diffusion and Aqueous-Phase Reactions 558 12. three. 2 Aqueous-Phase Diffusion and response 560 12. three. three Interfacial Mass shipping and Aqueous-Phase Reactions 561 12. three. four program to the S(IV)-Ozone response 564 12. three. five software to the S(IV)-Hydrogen Peroxide response 566 12. three. 6 Calculation of Aqueous-Phase response charges 567 12. three. 7 An Aqueous-Phase Chemistry/Mass shipping version 573 12. four Mass move to Falling Drops 574 12. five attribute Time for Atmospheric Aerosol Equilibrium 575 12. five. 1 stable Aerosol debris 575 12. five. 2 Aqueous Aerosol debris 577 Appendix 12 answer of the temporary Gas-Phase Diffusion challenge Equations (12.