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Additional info for Microbiology and Immunology (Board Review Series)
Mycoplasmas: (1) Are the smallest and easiest of the micro organism which are self-replicating. (2) Lack a mobilephone wall. (3) Are the single prokaryotes that comprise sterols. c. Obligate intracellular micro organism comprise Rickettsia and Chlamydia. (1) Rickettsia are incapable of self-replication and rely on the host phone for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) construction. (2) Chlamydia are bacteria-like pathogens with a posh progress cycle related to intracellular and extracellular kinds. They depend upon the host telephone for ATP construction. D. Viruses. 1. will not be cells and aren't noticeable with the sunshine microscope. 2. Are obligate intracellular parasites. three. comprise no organelles or biosynthetic equipment, apart from a couple of enzymes. four. include both RNA or DNA as genetic fabric. five. Are referred to as bacteriophages (or phages ) in the event that they have a bacterial host. E. Viroids. 1. usually are not cells and aren't noticeable with the sunshine microscope. 2. Are obligate intracellular parasites. three. Are single-stranded, covalently closed, round RNA molecules that exist as base-paired, rodlike constructions. four. reason plant illnesses yet haven't been confirmed to reason human disorder, even though the RNA of the hepatitis D virus (HDV) is viroid-like. F. Prions. 1. Are infectious debris linked to subacute innovative, degenerative illnesses of the crucial worried method (e. g. , Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease). 2. Copurify with a particular glycoprotein (PrP) that has a molecular weight of 27 to 30 kDa. they're proof against nucleases yet are inactivated with proteases and different brokers that inactivate proteins. three. Are altered conformations of a standard mobile protein which may autocatalytically shape extra copies of itself. II. HOST-PARASITE dating A. common plant life consist in general of micro organism, yet fungi and protozoa can be found in a few contributors. they could offer valuable nutrition (e. g. , diet ok) and unlock compounds (e. g. , colicins) with antibacterial job opposed to pathogenic micro organism. 1. They stay within the dermis, mouth, nostril, oropharynx, huge gut, urethra, and vagina. 2. basic vegetation might produce sickness in the event that they invade typically sterile components of the physique or should not safely managed by means of the immune process. B. Microbial pathogenicity refers to a microbe’s skill to reason affliction, which depends upon g enetically made up our minds virulence elements. A microbe’s pathogenicity is expounded to its: access Colonization get away from host protection mechanisms Multiplication harm to host tissues 1. 2. three. four. five. four BRS Microbiology and Immunology C. Virulence elements are chromosomal and extrachromosomal (plasmid) gene items that impact elements regarding an organism’s: Invasion houses Adherence and colonization Tissue harm triggered by means of pollution, immune procedure reactions, and intracellular progress Eluding host protection mechanisms Antibiotic resistance 1. 2. three. four. five. III. STERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION A. Terminology. 1. Sterility—total absence of attainable microorganisms as assessed by means of no progress on any medium. 2. Bactericidal—kills micro organism. three. Bacteriostatic—inhibits development of micro organism.