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8–3. five cm in line with yr by way of seaﬂoor spreading alongside the MidAtlantic Ridge, a submarine mountain variety setting apart the sea into an japanese and a western basin. The Atlantic harbors a couple of islands of generally volcanic beginning that have quite a lot of maritime climates, from polar within the excessive latitudes to tropical round the equator (Fig. 1). lots of those islands and linked seamounts, for instance the Canary Islands, shape volcanic chains, which reﬂect circulation of the underlying tectonic plates over a hotspot. total, those volcanic chains are much less conspicuous and no more widespread within the Atlantic than within the Paciﬁc. this text provides an outline of the Atlantic’s islands, their a long time, and the way they have been shaped; it's orga- mgg/topo/globe. html). nized by way of geographic-geologic teams approximately from north to south. ICELAND, SURTSEY, FAROE ISLANDS Iceland is a hugely energetic volcanic island, positioned simply the place a hotspot meets the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. it's the purely position the place the west-east spreading of the Eurasian and North American tectonic plates could be witnessed on land. The oldest rocks of Iceland (formed thirteen to sixteen million years in the past) are consequently uncovered at its western and japanese ends, and the youngest rocks are came upon in the direction of the heart. The reason for the hotspot and for the uplift of the Iceland plateau is a deep-seated mantle plume, the song of that's represented via the Greenland-Faroe ridge, which shaped throughout the commencing of the northeast Atlantic. The Faroe Islands signify an previous degree of the Iceland hotspot; they're of volcanic starting place and consist predominantly of lava ﬂows among fifty four and fifty eight million years outdated. AT L A N T I C R E G I O N sixty three Iceland’s volcanically energetic parts are the Western, jap, and northern Volcanic Zones, that are rift zones crossing the island in north-south to northeast-southwest instructions. the present locus of the Iceland plume axis is on the Vatnajökull glacier, the place subglacial volcanic eruptions periodically reason huge meltwater ﬂoods referred to as jökulhlaups. among 1963 and 1967, volcanism off southwest Iceland gave beginning to Surtsey Island, that is one of many youngest islands on this planet and a vintage normal reserve for the examine of biocolonization. The volcanic task of Iceland can also be reﬂected via plentiful scorching springs and geysers. Iceland consists basically of basaltic lavas and pyroclastics erupted from ﬁssures and defend volcanoes. significant volcanoes situated inside of ﬁssure swarms have additionally produced rhyolitic ash-ﬂow deposits in calderaforming eruptions. approximately eleven% of Iceland’s land sector is roofed via glaciers, and approximately part is of Quaternary volcanic starting place forming a lot of the inhospitable and uninhabited important highland. regardless of its position instantly south of the Arctic Circle, Iceland’s weather is temperate end result of the Gulf Stream’s moderating inﬂuence. ISLANDS OFF NORTHWESTERN AFRICA (MACARONESIA) Macaronesia (Greek for “fortunate islands”) covers the archipelagoes of the Azores (Portugal), Madeira with Selvagens (Portugal), the Canary Islands (Spain), and Cape Verde, that have friendly subtropical to tropical climates.