By Dietz Otto Edzard
It kind of feels secure to claim that this "Sumerian Grammar" by means of Professor D.O. Edzard becomes the hot vintage reference within the box. it really is an up to date, trustworthy advisor to the language of the Sumerians, the inventors of cuneiform writing within the overdue 4th millennium B.C., and therefore crucial participants to the excessive cultural ordinary of the entire of Mesopotamia and past. Following conventional traces, the "Grammar" describes common features, origins, linguistic surroundings, phonetics and phonology, morphology, syntax, and phrasing. Due cognizance is given to the symbiosis with Semitic Akkadian, with which Sumerian used to be to shape a veritable linguistic zone. With lucid motives of all technical linguistic concept. each one transliteration consists of its English translation.
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Extra info for Sumerian Grammar (Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section One, the Near [And] Mi)
Four. 1–8, the unaltered ¢am†u base is additionally reduplicated for various purposes: to indicate diﬀerent kinds of plurality or totality of the ‘subject’ or ‘object’; to emphasize its measurement, power, or normal value; or to emphasize the durative or iterative personality of the motion (Edzard 1971, 226–32; Steinkeller 1979, sixty three f. ). The diﬀerence among this sort of reduplicated base and the marû reduplication is obvious within the spellings gá-∞ ∞ gá (marû) and ∞gar-∞gar. this type of “free reduplication” of the ¢am†u base may well ensue either within the ¢am†u and marû conjugation styles: igi hé-mu-e-“i-bar-bar-re “may Utu—again and again—look on you” Enm. ninety five igi nam-bar-bar-re-en “you will not be purported to stare at each factor” Scribe and Son 31. siki-udu-¢ganÜ-na-kam “u-a mi-ni(-n)-∞gar-∞gar “(instead of the whip) he positioned wool of ewes within the hand (of all of the overseers)” Gudea Cyl. A xiii 2. dam dumu-Ku-li, dumu-Ba-ba-∞gu10-ke4-ne(-r), ba-an-da-zàh-zàh-é“, dumu-Ba-ba-∞gu10-ke4-ne mu-un-dab5-dab5-bé-é“ “the spouse and chil dren of Kuli had all ﬂed from the kids of Baba∞gu, (but) the chil dren of Baba∞gu seized all of them” NG no. 41:11'–13'. iku-zi-dam é“e ì(-n)-∞gar-∞gar “(Gudea) laid—along all sides—the measuring rope to (a sq. corresponding) precisely to an iku” Gudea Cyl. A xviii 26. notice: now not “gána”, as transliterated in ZA sixty one, 229. edzard_f13_70-155/PDF 4/28/03 2:45 PM web page eighty eighty 12. 6. N the shape a verbal case takes while it truly is reduplicated can't be estab lished previously. It diﬀers from one verb to the opposite. We may well mostly distinguish among methods of knowledge: (1) normal orthography: repetition of the signal used to render the straightforward shape or, very hardly, of a variation shape (e. g. , gá-∞ ∞ gá rather than ∞gar-∞gar); (2) unorthodox spelling: the scribe attempted, to the simplest of his skill, to render in syllabic script the particular pronunciation of the reduplicated shape. 12. 6. 1 a) complete reduplication: gi4-gi4, bad-bad (”ulgi a forty five with var. ba-adba-ad in Susa MDP fifty seven no. 200). 12. 6. 2 b) lack of ﬁnal consonant: gar ∞ → ∞gá-∞gá; kur9 → ku4-ku4; na∞g → na8-na8, and spot above 12. four. 2. c) lack of ﬁnal consonant in ﬁrst base: bi-bi-z(é) < *biz-biz (Gudea Cyl. A xxviii eleven, 24; “u ba-ba-r(a-da) < BAR-BAR Gudea Cyl. B xv 7; la-la-ah < LAH4-LAH4, see ZA fifty three, ninety nine with fn. sixteen. d) Assimilation of ﬁnal consonant in ﬁrst base to following preliminary consonant: bar6-bar6 → UD (babbar), ba(-ab)-ba-ar Proto-Ea 157 (MSL 14, 38). e) lack of consonant in moment base: gen → (*gen-gen) ge-en-gete [genge(n)-(e)d-e] “make ﬁrm” Innin “ag. 118 (var. to ge-en-ge-en), see Å. Sjöberg, ZA sixty five (1975) 188. f ) VC-VC > VCCVC (loss of hiatus): ul4 → ul-lu-ul “to hasten” ibid. (as e) 116 (var. ul4-ul4). g) C1VC2(V) → C1VC1C2(V) (loss of consonant in ﬁrst, of vowel in moment base): bir-bir CT 15, 22:8 // bi-ib-ri VS 2, 2 iv 20 (see Falkenstein 1959 b, ninety nine with fn. 17). tuku4 → tu-ut-ke see above 12. four. three. h) C1VC2VC3 → C1V-C1VC2VC3 (loss of moment syllable in ﬁrst base): ù-bi-GALAM-GALAMga-ga-la-am : gana utlellì “rise excessive (O Inanna)” TCL 6, 51:37 (Hru“ka 1969, 483 f.