By Barry Commoner
Discusses the technological, political, and social components contributing to environmental destruction and cites case histories which light up the ecology crisis
From bankruptcy One:
This ebook . . . starts off with the ecosphere, the environment within which civilization has performed its great--and terrible--deeds. Then it strikes to an outline of a few of the wear and tear we have now performed to the ecosphere--to the air, the water, the soil. although, via now such horror tales of environmental destruction are commonplace, even tiresome. less transparent is what we have to examine from them, and so i've got selected much less to shed tears for our earlier error than to aim to appreciate them. so much of this e-book is an attempt to find which human acts have damaged the circle of existence, and why. I hint the environmental quandary from its overt manifestations within the ecosphere to the ecological stresses which they replicate, to the faults in effective technology--and in its medical background--that generate those stresses, and at last to the commercial, social, and political forces that have pushed us down this self-destructive direction. All this within the hope--and expectation--that after we comprehend the origins of the environmental predicament, we will be able to start to deal with the massive venture of surviving it.
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Extra resources for The Closing Circle: Nature, Man, and Technology
Humans, and certainly their development in quantity, are the resource of the greatly elaborated community of occasions that includes the civilization of guy: the recent wisdom of nature generated by means of technological know-how, the facility of expertise to lead usual forces, the massive bring up in fabric wealth, the wealthy elaboration of financial, cultural, social, and political tactics. to clarify the interplay of guy and his habitat, we needs to hunt down, then, between some of these human actions, these which shape a chain that allows us to come back to our start line, the ecosphere. one of these singular selection is, after all, arbitrary. for almost every little thing that folks think or do can impression their perspective towards the realm within which they stay, and their motion on it. for instance, portray, song, or sculpture all replicate human event on the planet, together with nature, or the ecosphere. And who would want to disclaim nice portray, or a track, can in flip effect human motion at the surroundings? My goal isn't to mild those human actions or to disclaim their energy on the planet, yet to supply a sharper specialize in the cloth base of human lifestyles on the planet. consequently, to proceed this demonstration of the net of interactions among guy and nature, I shall choose between one of the actions that are depending on humans simply one—science. technology is, in spite of everything, the potential through which people study the character of the area within which they dwell, wisdom that's the crucial consultant to what people do in that global. rather relating to the ecosphere, a lot of what we do is now guided, consciously, by means of what technological know-how tells us (or what we expect it tells us) approximately nature. instantly depending on science—the accrued wisdom of ways nature operates—is expertise, which generates a realistic technique of utilizing medical wisdom for worthy ends. even supposing long ago expertise was once frequently constructed via trial and mistake, instead of at once from prepared medical wisdom, nowa days approximately all technological advances are consciously guided by way of technological know-how. In flip, and back in particular in sleek stipulations, business and agricultural construction are depending on expertise. The dominance of know-how within the improvement of usa productiveness has been completely documented, for instance by way of John Kenneth Galbraith. And in all smooth societies, construction relies on the operation of the methods that govern the distribution and trade of wealth—the economy. eventually, it's the operation of the industrial approach that governs the extraction of latest wealth from the ecosphere. For a wealth-producing job is operable simply insofar because it is predicted to yield a few wanted price; and cost is, in flip, outlined by means of the industrial procedure. the following we go back, during this cyclical path, to the environment, because all wealth-producing agencies depend upon the ecosphere for the organic capital that's necessary to each efficient company. hence, wealth, that's necessary to produce humans and to take care of all their actions, is itself produced via human activities that are guided through technology, mediated through expertise, ruled by means of an economic climate, and exerted in the course of the ecosphere.