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Download E-books The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (Oxford Quick Reference) PDF

The 3rd variation of The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics is an authoritative and priceless reference resource protecting each point of the wide-ranging box of linguistics. In 3,250 entries this dictionary spans grammar, phonetics, semantics, languages (spoken and written), dialects, and sociolinguistics. transparent examples - and diagrams the place applicable - support to show the meanings of even the main technical phrases. It additionally contains entries on key students of linguistics, either historic and smooth, summarizing their specialisms and achievements.

With latest entries completely revised and up-to-date, and the addition of a hundred new entries, this new version expands its assurance of semantics, in addition to lately rising terminology inside, for instance, syntactic concept and sociolinguistics.

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Agent noun. energetic (1) (ACT) (Construction, sentence) during which a verb has a *subject that is routinely the position stuffed through an *agent instead of a *patient. therefore the agent my spouse is the topic within the energetic sentence My spouse reduce the grass. additionally (and extra generally) of the shape of verb in the sort of building. therefore minimize is an energetic verb and, in e. g. the lady slicing the grass, slicing is an lively participle. Opp. passive (1). In older utilization verbs have been ‘active’ provided that they'd a corresponding passive. therefore lower will be energetic seeing that there's a passive in e. g. The grass was once lower. If a verb used to be energetic in shape yet had no corresponding passive it was once referred to as ‘neuter’. hence a verb like look is normally neuter. lively (2) (Vocabulary) speaker makes use of, rather than passive vocabulary, that's recognized yet no longer used. Likewise lively wisdom of a language is wisdom that permits one to talk it, in preference to passive wisdom, which permits one to appreciate it. lively articulator See articulator. ‘active language’ one that has simple *intransitive buildings. within the first the noun is pointed out by way of its case or another way with the *agent in a *transitive building: this would be so, specifically, whilst it truly is itself notionally an agent. within the moment it's pointed out with the *patient in a transitive development. hence, within the transitive, the agent and sufferer can be marked as nominative vs. accusative: schematically, Mary-NOM kissed Sarah-ACC ‘Mary kissed Sarah’. An intransitive may then have variously the nominative or the accusative: e. g. Mary-NOM left, the place Mary is an agent or is comparatively animate when it comes to an *animacy hierarchy, however the tree-ACC fell, the place the tree isn't an agent or is minimally animate. also known as ‘split intransitive’. unusual from an *ergative language, during which the noun within the intransitive is pointed out all through with a sufferer within the transitive building, and an *accusative language, during which it really is pointed out all through with an agent. job See Aktionsart. actor occasionally in a feeling reminiscent of *agent (1). however, brokers as linguistic parts should be exclusive from ‘actors’ because the members on this planet that they check with. ‘actualization’ = cognizance. actuation the way alterations in a language are initiated. The ‘actuation challenge’ is for this reason that of explaining why a particular switch all started in a selected language or dialect at a particular time, and as such is distinctive, in lots of theories, from the matter of ‘implementation’, or transmission of the switch throughout a group of audio system. acute 1. Diacritic (´) initially and nonetheless used, in descriptions of *tone languages, to symbolize a excessive pitch: see accessory (1). additionally, in money owed of intonation, to symbolize an increase in pitch. 2. *Distinctive characteristic of either consonants and vowels proposed via *Jakobson within the Nineteen Fifties: e. g. in English entrance vowels are acute, as are dental and alveolar consonants. outlined acoustically via a relative focus of strength in greater frequencies.

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